Since Caroline Moser developed the Framework for a Gender and Development (GAD) approach to development planning in the 1980s while working at the Development Planning Unit (DPU) of the University of London, there has been a proliferation of gender analysis tools and toolkits in agricultural projects is becoming the norm rather than the exception. The Moser Framework set the parameters for gender analysis through its focus on women’s strategic and practical gender needs. While there was criticism of certain elements of the framework, especially its focus on roles and not relationships, the framework did set a stage for addressing women’s practical needs, those that if met, help women in current activities and strategic needs which, if met, transform the balance of power between men and women.
The evolution of other frameworks and tools over the years has tended to focus on gender analysis, which while important in understanding gender inequalities is not sufficient to address these inequalities. More recent approaches have focused on gender transformation, with a strong emphasis on getting men and women to examine gender relations, question gender norms and take actions to address these.